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09/10/ · ANFO (or A mmonium Nitrate/Fuel Oil) is a widely used bulk industrial explosive mixture in mines and quarry operation. It consists of 94 % porous Ammonium Nitrate (NH 4 NO 3), (AN) that acts as the oxidizing agent and absorbent for the fuel – 6 % number 2 fuel oil (FO), popularly known as High Speed Diesel (HSD). Explosion hazards of ammonium nitrate under fire exposure, by R. W. Van Dolah [and others. Washington] U. S. Dept. of the Interior, Bureau of Mines  79 p. illus., tables. (U.S. Bureau of Mines. Report of investiga• tions ) Based on work done in cooperation with Chemists‘ Association, Inc. 1. Ammonium nitrate. 2. bundestagger.de Size: 2MB. Ammonium nitrate is the main component of slurry explosives used for mining. However, the source of ammonium nitrate used for improvised explosive mixtures is often fertilizer. Fertilizer-grade ammonium nitrate can be powdered or in the form of prills. Fertilizer-grade prills are usually coated to . INDUSTRIAL EXPLOSIVES FOR MINING. Ammonium Nitrate and Related Products. BDA is one of the foremost suppliers of Ammonium Nitrate (AN) and related products including detonation cords, emulsion, and boosters to the Australian mining sector. Our Ammonium Nitrate is primarily sourced from China, Korea, Turkey, India, Chile, Russia and the Ukraine. We endeavor to ensure the highest .
Featured image: A general view of the area damaged by a massive explosion and a blast wave, in Beirut, Lebanon August 5, in this picture obtained from social media. Picture taken with a drone. The Lebanese capital Beirut was rocked on Tuesday evening local time by an explosion that has killed at least 78 people and injured thousands more. Video footage appears to show a fire burning nearby before the blast. For an industrial ammonium nitrate disaster to occur, a lot needs to go wrong.
Tragically, this seems to have been the case in Beirut. Instead, it acts as a source of oxygen that can accelerate the combustion burning of other materials. For combustion to occur, oxygen must be present. Ammonium nitrate prills provide a much more concentrated supply of oxygen than the air around us. At high enough temperatures, however, ammonium nitrate can violently decompose on its own.
This process creates gases including nitrogen oxides and water vapour. It is this rapid release of gases that causes an explosion.
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Following the destruction caused by ammonium nitrate exploding at Beirut’s port, there are concerns globally about its storage. The chemical is widely used around the world, as a fertiliser or for explosives in mining. But there are strict regulations about where it can be kept and for how long. And its location is often kept secret because of its potential for making bombs. The amount stored in the West African nation’s capital, Dakar, is nearly equivalent to what was in the port at Beirut – 2, tonnes.
Senegalese officials in Dakar port say the chemical sitting there is part of a consignment of 3, tonnes of ammonium nitrate destined for neighbouring Mali. They say tonnes has already been transported there. The government says the owner of the consignment had asked to move it to a warehouse, about 30 km from Dakar. But the authorities have not yet approved the request as the site has not met all the required conditions, including having a proper environmental and social impact study.
One Senegalese official said they’d now asked the owner to arrange for the ammonium nitrate to be sent out of the country. There are very few details of who the owner of the consignment is and what they intend to use it for in Mali. Nearly tonnes were stored in 37 containers m half a mile from a residential area about 20km outside Chennai, one of India’s major cities, for five years while the authorities in the southern state of Tamil Nadu fought a legal battle against a company that had imported it from South Korea, in , claiming it was for agricultural purposes.
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An explosion at a warehouse stocked with 2, tons of ammonium nitrate in the Beirut port changed the face of a city almost instantly. The exact cause of the Beirut blast is still under investigation, but the catastrophic effects of ammonium nitrate were there for all to see: A massive explosion causing shock waves throughout the city and a mushroom cloud of smoke billowing high into the sky. So far, at least are confirmed dead, including one American , and over 5, were injured in the blast, according to the Lebanese authorities.
But, according to experts, ammonium nitrate is not itself classified as dangerous, and requires a lot of energy to ignite. Ammonium nitrate was involved in the Texas City disaster , one of the largest industrial explosions in history. But the chemical has a more nefarious use — as an explosive. The chemical compound was used to make explosives for the Oklahoma City bombing that killed people 25 years ago.
The fertilizer and fuel bomb used then contained just over two tons of ammonium nitrate to carry out the deadliest domestic terror attack on U. The warehouse in Beirut is believed to have carried more than 1, times that amount. Yet, Oxley, who carried out research into the chemical compound, said that while the ammonium nitrate has been used as an explosive, the compound cannot be solely responsible for the explosion.
Port officials have been placed on house arrest pending the results of the investigation on the suspected gross negligence of leaving the over 2, tons in the port’s warehouse for six years, Lebanon President Michel Aoun announced. The ammonium nitrate appears to have been confiscated from a commercial cargo ship abandoned in Beirut in , allegedly with a Russian owner, and then confiscated by the Lebanese authorities a year later; it’s origins linked to former Soviet republic, Georgia.
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The Lebanese capital Beirut was rocked on Tuesday evening local time by an explosion that has killed more than people and injured thousands more. The country’s prime minister, Hassan Diab, said the blast was caused by around 2, tonnes of ammonium nitrate stored near the city’s cargo port. Video footage appears to show fire burning nearby before the blast. Produced as small porous pellets, or „prills“, it’s one of the world’s most widely used fertilisers.
It is also the main component in many types of mining explosives, where it’s mixed with fuel oil and detonated by an explosive charge.
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Are civil and military explosives the same? In other words, are we using the same explosives in mining and warfare? Well, yes and no. From the ninth century AD though the historians are still uncertain about the exact date of its invention to the mids, black powder was the only explosive available. A single type of explosives was therefore used as a propellant for guns and for blasting purpose in any military, mining and civil engineering application.
The Industrial Revolution carried discoveries in explosives and initiation technologies. A specialization principle, therefore, operates between the military and civil application of explosives thanks to new products economics, versatility, strength, precision or capability to be stored for long periods without significant deterioration. Explosives are chemicals, and as such, they bring reactions.
Two different kinds of reactions deflagration and detonation allow distinguishing between the high and low explosives. The so-called „low-order explosives“ or „low explosives,“ such as Black Powder, tend to generate a large number of gasses and burn at subsonic speeds.
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Situated along the east and west coast of Australia, our team of over 50 employees, combined with two custom-built, fully equipped workshops, and mobile personnel, ensure our mining products exceed the capabilities of that of our competitors, and meet all your requirements when it comes to explosives equipment.
Whether you are looking for customised blast trucks, a range of explosives trucks for your mine site requirements, or need an ammonium nitrate emulsion plant designed and built, we have the expertise, experience and highly qualified personnel to supply you with all these necessary services and products. Our head office is based in Welshpool, WA, where we manufacture equipment for the global explosives and mining industry.
Our products and equipment are competitively priced, with everything manufactured according to strict quality and design standards. We have been supplying the mining and other relevant industrial sectors since and continue to manufacture and supply some of the safest and most technically advanced mining explosives and equipment in the world.
We manufacture custom-designed mobile manufacturing units for smaller mining operations. These MMUs can pump or auger bulk emulsions and ammonium nitrate to produce explosives in blast holes at surface mining operations. These mobile units are specifically designed as a cost-effective solution for smaller operations.
We supply mines that are situated in remote areas with harsh climates which utilise process plants , emulsion plants or blend plants. This is because these mines often require a huge effort and expense to get all the necessary explosive equipment and products to these sites. In these cases it makes both financial and safety sense to build process plants on site, in order to provide them with high quality and safe bulk emulsion.
Our heavy ANFO units are a blend of ANFO and emulsion which, when blended, will increase the bulk density of normal ANFO, making the mixture into a more versatile consistency. These blends increase the density of ANFO, increasing the energy in the borehole at the same time, resulting in a cost-effective explosive solution and ultimately reducing your mining costs.
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The shipment had been ordered by an African explosives manufacturing company for mining in Mozambique. Warehouses in the port were used to store explosives and chemicals including nitrates, common components of fertilizers and explosives. The General Director of General Security, Major General Abbas Ibrahim, said the ammonium nitrate confiscated from Rhosus had exploded. The . Ammonium nitrate is the main component of slurry explosives used for mining. However, the source of ammonium nitrate used for improvised explosive mixtures is often fertilizer. Fertilizer-grade ammonium nitrate can be powdered or in the form of prills. Fertilizer-grade prills are usually coated to reduce hygroscopicity. However, as prills or powder, fertilizer-grade ammonium nitrate can be.
We are a global force in nitrogen-based chemical manufacturing, holding foremost positions in the commercial explosives and fertilizer markets. A large number of mining, quarrying, and construction industries use Ammonium Nitrate AN as a critical part of their blasting work. Ammonium Nitrate in prill form is the primary ingredient in ANFO based products and the key component in both prill and liquid form in a full range of customized bulk explosive blends.
From our years of experience in supplying Ammonium Nitrate explosive to national and international companies across the globe, we understand how important it is to provide exceptional products that our customers can depend on to give them the results they’re after. We have invested heavily in our processing technology and quality control systems, rigorously testing each product at every stage of the manufacturing process to ensure it meets the high standards our customers demand.
Low density Ammonium Nitrate explosive is used extensively in the mining industry and is intentionally made very porous to allow for the rapid uptake of liquid fuel oil. The prill is coated with a trace amount of a waxy anti-caking material to enhance flowability and handling characteristics. The hot Ammonium Nitrate Liquor is used extensively in the mining industry. The prill is coated with a paraffin which makes the Ammonium Nitrate difficult to dissolve and use for other applications.
This liquid fertilizer is used in direct application with spray atomization or put into sprinkler systems. Ammonium Nitrate is a fast release fertilizer. The plants quickly absorb the nitrate ion and Ammonium ion for immediate metabolism.